Using Personas for Urban Planning
The Regional Plan Association is working on New York City and its Borough’s long range Fourth Generation Plan. In order to forecast future needs, RPA created a set of ten avatars to represent New Yorkers. These avatars, or personas, are an increasingly popular tool used in Design Thinking andService Design. Creating personas early in a planning process has several advantages
1) Creating a person lets you enter someone’s world without invading a real person’s privacy.
2) Creating personas is a cost-effective way to think about your audience. Focus groups and interviews are still relevant, but can be costly. Personas let you understand target groups prior to larger investments in customer or stakeholder development.
3) Personas allow flexibility and forgiveness as you develop new planning processes. Suppose you chart an incorrect course or ask the wrong questions? With personas, you can tighten up the process without wasting your stakeholders’ time.
RPA’s set of avatars is instructive:
1) RPA developed the avatars based on a statistically representative group of New Yorkers. For example, the 10 avatars represent (roughly) the region’s homeownership status, children living in households, age, income, etc…
2) While RPA could have presented typical Census data, use of avatars turned dry data into a story about a person, their life and everyday pressures and opportunities. These stories better define present needs and possible future actions. This is the essence of long range planning for both individuals and the places they live.
3) Planning elements are tested against all 10 personas to make sure final plan elements apply to the range of New Yorkers in the region.
4) The graphic presentation is refreshing, giving both a useful snapshot of data and an engaging story about New Yorkers’ lives.
You may be wondering how to do this yourself. Although use of personas in urban planning is somewhat new, there are a lot of resources from business management. For more examples, please see our “Design Thinking” board on Pinterest (many examples are focused on use of technology and/or business, but they can be adapted for planning purposes). Here is a guide to your first personas.
1) Choose a planning topic where you have a range of stakeholders. We recommend 10 since this will help with data (e.g. if 30% of people fall in a locally-important category, then 2 of the 10 will share this characteristic. For example, if 30% of families have school age children, then 3 of teh 10 personas will have kids).
2) When creating personas, include name, photo (usually stock photography), age, location, avocation, problems/challenges, motivations, goals, and a quote they would likely give you regarding their life and planning.
3) Choose team members who know how to get their hands on data sets for relevant challenges. Brainstorm on what data sets are needed and who might have them. For example, a city might want to know how to better use smartphones for engagement. In this case, knowing smart phone and cell phone adoption among various groups is critical.
1) You will still need to conduct in-person interviews and public engagement on a wider scale. Personas are not a substitute for civic engagement.
2) Don’t recycle personas for every planning activity. This ensures you pay attention to the specific planning process and keep up with changing demographics and trends.
3) RPA compared regional planning options with its persona set to determine whether the options addressed various groups’ needs. This is one way to use the results.
Personas are just one element of design thinking. We’ll explore other facets in Design School lessons ahead as they relate to planning. Send us (or better post) examples of your community’s use of service design, design thinking and personas.